Requests-SSL认证



 

SSL证书是安全URL附带的一项安全功能。使用Requests库时,它还会验证给定https URL的SSL证书。默认情况下,Requests模块会启用SSL验证,如果不存在证书,则会引发错误。

使用安全的URL

以下是使用安全URL的示例-

import requests
getdata = requests.get(https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/users)
print(getdata.text) 

输出

E:\prequests>python makeRequest.py
[
   {
      "id": 1,
      "name": "Leanne Graham",
      "username": "Bret",
      "email": "Sincere@april.biz",
      "address": {
         "street": "Kulas Light",
         "suite": "Apt. 556",
         "city": "Gwenborough",
         "zipcode": "92998-3874",
         "geo": {
            "lat": "-37.3159",
            "lng": "81.1496"
         }
      },
      "phone": "1-770-736-8031 x56442",
      "website": "hildegard.org",
      "company": {
         "name": "Romaguera-Crona",
         "catchPhrase": "Multi-layered client-server neural-net",
         "bs": "harness real-time e-markets"
      }
   }
]

我们很容易从上述https URL获得响应,这是因为请求模块可以验证SSL证书。

您可以通过简单地添加verify = False来禁用SSL验证,如下例所示。

import requests
getdata = 
requests.get('https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/users', verify=False)
print(getdata.text)

您将获得输出,但同时还会显示一条警告消息,即未验证SSL证书,建议添加证书验证。

输出

E:\prequests>python makeRequest.py
connectionpool.py:851: InsecureRequestWarning: Unverified HTTPS request is 
being made. Adding certificate verification is strongly advised. See: 
https://urllib3
.readthedocs.io/en/latest/advanced-usage.htm  l#ssl-warnings
 InsecureRequestWarning)
[
   {
      "id": 1,
      "name": "Leanne Graham",
      "username": "Bret", 
      "email": "Sincere@april.biz",
      "address": {
         "street": "Kulas Light",
         "suite": "Apt. 556",
         "city": "Gwenborough",
         "zipcode": "92998-3874",
         "geo": {
            "lat": "-37.3159",
            "lng": "81.1496"
         }
      },
      "phone": "1-770-736-8031 x56442",
      "website": "hildegard.org",
      "company": {
         "name": "Romaguera-Crona",
         "catchPhrase": "Multi-layered   client-server neural-net",
         "bs": "harness real-time e-markets"
      }
   }
]

您还可以通过在端托管SSL证书来验证SSL证书,并使用verify参数提供路径,如下所示。

import requests
getdata = 
requests.get('https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/users', verify='C:\Users\AppData\Local\certificate.txt')
print(getdata.text)  

输出

E:\prequests>python makeRequest.py
[
   {
      "id": 1,
      "name": "Leanne Graham",
      "username": "Bret",
      "email": "Sincere@april.biz",
      "address": {
         "street": "Kulas Light",
         "suite": "Apt. 556",
         "city": "Gwenborough",
         "zipcode": "92998-3874",
         "geo": {
            "lat": "-37.3159",
            "lng": "81.1496"
         }
      },
      "phone": "1-770-736-8031 x56442",
      "website": "hildegard.org",
      "company": {
         "name": "Romaguera-Crona",
         "catchPhrase": "Multi-layered   client-server neural-net",
         "bs": "harness real-time e-markets"
      }
   }
] 

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